The causative agent of the disease is a protozoan, the infusoria of the genus Balantidium coli. Despite the fact that the microorganism was described for the first time in 1857, its ability to cause disease in humans was proved only in 1901 by N. S. Solovyov. Among the infectious agents that provoke intestinal diseases, balantidia is the largest: the vegetative form is 50–80 microns long, 35–60 microns wide, and the diameter of the cyst (a temporary form covered with a protective sheath) is about 50 microns. The host of balantidia are pigs (usually young piglets), for which microorganisms are not dangerous. The route of infection is fecal-oral, infection is possible through direct contact. The disease is usually registered in regions with a developed pig industry, more often in the rural population or workers in pig farms.
With timely treatment, the prognosis is favorable. In the absence of medical care, the process becomes chronic, mortality reaches 10% or more. ve infectionIt is virtually impossible to grow with getative forms of celecoxib pills, since they are not viable in the environment, and occurs due to cysts that can survive up to 100 days in the conditions of pig farms and more than 200 days in the soil. For this reason, a sick person (as well as an asymptomatic carrier of balantidia) practically cannot serve as a source of infection, since cysts are not formed in the human body, and if they occur, then in extremely small quantities.
For unknown reasons, in most cases, the microorganism exists for a long time in the intestine in the form of a cyst without causing disease. Only in a small part of the infected, excistation occurs (exit from the ciliate cyst, covered with longitudinal rows of cilia, with the help of which movement is carried out). Under the influence of the proteolytic enzyme (hyaluronidase) secreted by balantidia, ciliates are introduced into the intestinal wall. In the intestinal wall, the parasite actively multiplies, which is accompanied by necrosis of the mucous membrane. When the bacterial flora is attached around the foci of necrosis, a pronounced inflammatory reaction develops.
Despite the fairly frequent infection with balantidia (4-5%), a detailed clinical picture is observed in isolated cases. The main cause of the disease is the entry of celebrex (in exceptional cases, vegetative forms) into the human gastrointestinal tract through the use of contaminated water or crops contaminated with cysts.